Evolution of Temperature, emission measure, and abundances during flaring events on M-dwarf binary

Evolution of spectral parameters of EQ Peg have been shown. These parameters have been estimated from time-resolved spectroscopy. From the top to bottom panels, the logarithmic values of X-ray luminosity as derived in 0.3–7-keV band, the emission measure (EM3 ) associated to flaring plasma, corresponding plasma temperature (kT3 ), and corresponding global abundance (Z3) have been shown. The blue, orange, and cyan shaded regions indicate the duration of flares F1, F2, and F3. The ‘Pre-Flare’ and ‘Post-Flare’ segments have been shown with the grey shaded region. The Horizontal bars give the time range over which spectra were extracted, and the vertical bars show a 68 per cent confidence interval of the parameters. The blue dashed line shows the best-fitting of equations (3) and (4) to the EM3 and kT3 , respectively during the decay phase of each flare. The green shaded region shows the 1σ uncertainty in the fitting. The red dot–dashed vertical lines show the flare peak time for each flare.

[Image Credit: Karmakar et al. (2022)]